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Injection Types Purposes Complications

Injection Definition Injection Types Purposes Complications Purposes of Injections,General rules for Injection,Sites of Injections,Preparation of articles,Nurse’s responsibility in administration of injections
Signs and symptoms of adverse affect all information about Injections,mentioned Below
INJECTIONS DEFINITION
Injections are (sterile solutions or emulsion, suspensions), “parenteral therapy” It means giving of therapeutic agents including medicines, food outside of the elementary tract {Para=Beside; Entron=intestine}.in other words, It is the forcing of a solution(medicine) in to a cavity , a blood vessel or body tissue through hallow tube or needle

 Injection Types:-

 

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Injection Types

Intramuscular injection:-
• An intramuscular (IM) injection is the given medication into the deep muscle tissue.
Intra dermal:-
• Inra-dermal injection (I.D) is the giving injection of a small amount of medicine or fluid          into the dermal layer of under the skin.
Intravenous:-
• Forcing of a liquid (medicine) into the veins and vascular tree is called intravenous injection, or an organ.
Intra-arterial:-
• When introducing a liquid (medication) in to arteries, it is called intra arterial injection
Hypo dermal or subcutaneous:-
• The forcing of a liquid (medication) into the just below the skin subcutaneous tissues,
Intraosseous:-
• When medication or fluid into the bone marrow is called intraosseous injection
Intraspinal or intrathecal:-
• The forcing of medicine or liquid in to the spinal cavity
• It is called spinal injection, Intraspinal, intrathecal.
Intra articular:-
• Introducing medication into joints,
Intra ocular:-
• A liquid or medication delivering into the eye,
Intra cardiac:-
• Introducing of medication in to a cardiac tissue
Intrapertonial:-
• A liquid or medicine introducing in to the peritoneal cavity, it is called Intrapertonial injection,
Infusions:-
• When a large quantity liquid are introducing through intravenous in to the body is called     infusions,
Venous section or cut down
• Opening of a vein and introducing a catheter or wide bore needle and infusing                    medications or fluids or with drawing blood is called venous section or venepuncture,          this is done in emergencies.
Transfusions:-
• Transfusion is the introduction of plasma or whole blood in to a veins or arteries.
Purpose of injection:-
• Injections work faster and systemic effect of the drug, It is more effective.
• Injections, (medications) usually allow rapid absorption,
• Some medications and Drugs those are altered or not absorbed or not effective by other methods of administration,
• Intramuscular Injections can be administered from 0.5ml and up to 2 ml in the Deltoid muscle and up to 3 ml in the gluteal muscle in adults,
• Inability to swallow,
• Non availability of effective oral agent,
• Profuse vomiting,
• Severe and life threatening illness,
• When the patient is unconsciousness,
• When patient is unable to swallow due to surgical condition and neurological condition,
• When the medication is irritating and toxic effect the oral mucosa and gastro-intestinal        tract,
• To obtain the local effecting at the injection site,
When the patient was under the anesthesia or coma,
Factor that favouring to absorption of medications,
• Composition of the medicine and fluid injected,
• Blood supply to the injected area,
• Circulation time the blood,
• Application of heat,
• Physical conditions,
• Massage,
Injection Complications:-
• Giving injection is not a common procedure,
• Pain,
• Allergic reactions,
• Infections,
• Pyrogenic reaction,
• Tissue trauma,
• Foot drop,
• Injury to the periostieum,
• Injury to the blood vessels and arteries,
• Air embolism,
• Overdose and under dose,
• Fluid volume overload,
• Chemical neuritis,
• Abscess,
• Muscle or fat necrosis,
• Muscle fibrosis and contracture,
• Gangrene,
• Nerve Injury,
• Injection is with risk of disease, it is disability and even death,
• The most common cause one is transmission of blood borne infections mainly HIV,            Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C.
Equipment selection for injections
Syringes parts
• Barrel
• Plunger
• Tip
Barrel: –
• Chamber that holds the a liquid or medication,
Plunger:-
• Part within the barrel that moves back and front to instill and withdraw medication,
Tip: –
• Part that the needle is attached to the barrel,
Calibration:-
• Syringe sizes from 0.5ml to 50 ml
• Measure to a 1/10th or 1/100th depending on calibration
Needle:-
• Shaft of the needle
• Bevel
• Hub
• Gauge
• Needle Length chosen depends on medication and the depth to which medication will be    instilled,
• The needle Tip of shaft is beveled or sharpened or slanted to pierce the skin more easily,
• Gauge: width of the needle (16 – 27 gauge) – a smaller number indicates a larger                diameter and larger lumen inside,
Considerations when choosing a syringe and needle,
• Age of the patient,
• Type of medication,
• Root of medication,
• Depth of tissue penetration required,
• Quantity Volume of medication,
• Viscosity of medication,
• Size of the client,
Note:-
• Use only new disposable syringe and needle every time,
Nurses responsibility in administration of injections
• Check for the diagnosis of patient and age of the patient,
• Check for the physician orders,
• Check for the purpose of injection,
• Check for the type of injection, the correct dosage, the route, the time,
• Check for the patient name bed number and inpatient number,
• Check the necessity to giving the test dose.
. Check the patient consciousness and ability to follow directions
• Check for the medication availability,
• Check for the nurses record to find the time which the last dose given to the patient,
• Check for the last dose injection site,
• Check the site where next dose to be given,
• Check area for the redness of skin, skin lesions pain itching, sloughing abscess                  formation,
Preparation of articles for injection,
• Clean tray in which to place medication and equipment,
• Kidney tray and paper bag,
• Syringes of appropriate size,
• Sterile Swabs saturated with isopropyl alcohol 70%,
• File to cut open the ampoule,
• Sterile gloves, Apron,
• Alcohol wipe in a foil package,
• Vial of medication,
• Sterile, dry 2×2 gauze in paper wrapper,
Intramuscular injection procedure
NOTE:-
• The steps of procedure are basically the same for all the types of injections,
Preparation of the patient and environment
• Identify the patient correctly with Name,
• Explain to the procedure to the patient, to win his confidence and co- operation,
• Explain the sequence of the injection procedure; patient and tell the patient how he can    the co operate in the procedure,
• Provide privacy to the patient with curtains and drapes,
• Select a site suitable for the rout of administration quantity of medication to be given and     the characteristics of medication,
• Keep the attention of patient away from the injection by friendly conversation
• As for as possible avoid meal timings,
• Place the patient in comfortable position and relaxed position suitable for the type of            injection if the injections are given on the bed,
Giving intramuscular injection sites
• Dorsal gluteal site,
• Ventro -gluteal site,
• Vastus lateralis site,
• Mid deltoid site,
Z track technique:-video link Z-Track intramuscular injection

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• The Skin is pulled downwards and laterally before injection,This displaces the skin in addition to SC tissue leaving the muscle mass there only and uses the muscle action to stop leakage of medication into the SC tissue and down the line irritation.

NOTE:-
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