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Fracture Types Nursing Care Complications

Fracture Types Nursing Care Complications

Definition:

A Fracture is a Break or crack in a Bone,Partial or complete breakage of bone, Periosteum  A Fracture is any disruption in the normal continuity of a Periosteum or bone,all information about Fracture Complications,Types of Fracture,Medical Management Surgical Management, Nursing care, First aid for Fractures mentioned Below,

Fracture Causes:-

Diseases (Osteoporosis)
Direct force
Indirect force
Force of muscular action
Force of ligaments

Fracture Recognition:-

Pain
Swelling
Deformity
Bruising
Muscle spasm
Tenderness
Abnormal Mobility and crepitus
Neuromuscular changes
Signs shock

Types of Bone Fractures

Simple fractures
Compound fractures
Complicated fractures

Classifications of fractures

Transverse
Oblique
Longitudinal
Spiral
Comminuted
Impacted
Green stick
Compressed
Depressed
Grade-1
Grade-2
Grade-3

Aims of First Aid:-

To prevent further damage
To make the patient comfortable
To prevent Movement injured site
To reduce pain
To arrange medical aid with comfortable support during transport
To prevent Hemorrhage

Diagnostic Evaluation:-

X-Ray (Radiography)
CT scan
MRI Scan
Skiagram of involved part in two views AP interal views, joints proximal and distal to the fracture site to included

COMPLICATIONS AFTER FRACTURES

Hemorrhage
Nerve injury
Infection
Deep Vein Thrombosis
Pulmonary Embolism
Fat Embolism syndrome
Compartment syndrome

LONG TERM COMPLICATION

-A vascular Necrosis
-Non-functional union:
-Malunion
-Non-union
-Fibrous union
-Complex regional pain syndrome

SURGICAL MANAGEMENT

-Open reduction
-External fixation
-Arthroscopic surgeries

Nursing management

STEP WISE MANAGEMENT
Provide free air way
Life line
I .V. antibiotics in open injuries
Rule out injuries elsewhere specially Head and spinal injuries
Remove any light clothing or Bandages applied by the patient
From fracture site
Good pillow support for lower limb fractures
Blood grouping and typing to be done if major fractures are seen
Provide adequate splint age by POP casts
Splint age one joint above and one joint below the Fracture site

MONITORING IN THE WARD

After splint age and adequate dressing of the wounds, shift the patient to wards.
Elevate the upper limb
Elevate the lower limb
Give adequate analgesia
Care of the client with closed reduction (POP cast)
Neuro vascular assessment
Assess colour of affected site compare to opposite side
Capillary refill in Nail bed
Inspect or palpate for Edema
Check for pulsation
Check for movements and sensation of effected extremity.
Ask clients to rate the pain on scale (0-10)

CARE OF CLIENT WITH TRACTION

Maintain Correct Body alignment and proper Bed making
Weights hanging free of bed ad floor
Correct amount of weight hanging
Assess for skin break down
Inspect Traction pin entry –exit sites
For swelling, redness, bleeding
Discharge, odour,infection

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